New Air Pollutant Regulations for Canada

Canada is to regulate industrial air pollutant emissions, according to the federal Minister of Environment. Taken from the Government of Canada website:

The Government of Canada is taking action to reduce industrial air emissions with the proposed Multi-Sector Air Pollutants Regulations (MSAPR). The regulations are a key part of the federal responsibility for implementing the new federal/provincial/territorial Air Quality Management System.

The MSAPR impose mandatory national performance standards on specific sector/equipment groups in order to establish consistent emissions limits for regulated industries across the country. The proposed regulations include requirements for stationary spark-ignition gas-fired engines, non-utility boilers and heaters, and the cement manufacturing sector.

Requirements for additional industrial sectors will be added to the regulations in the years ahead. Once fully implemented, industries will be required to reduce their emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), volatile organic compounds, ammonia, and/or particular matter, which are all contributors to smog and increased health risks. Environment Canada estimates that there will be 3.4 megatonnes of greenhouse gas reductions between 2013 and 2035, as a co‑benefit to these regulations.

Stationary Spark-Ignition Engines
Stationary engines covered by the proposed regulations burn gaseous fuels and are typically used for gas compression in the upstream oil and gas sector (such as moving gas through pipelines), but can also be used for other purposes, such as back-up power generators for emergencies or in remote locations. These engines range in size from as small as the engine in a small car to as large as the engine found in a diesel-electric locomotive, and are a significant source of NOx emissions. In one hour of operation, an average-sized stationary spark-ignition engine emits as much NOx as an average light-duty vehicle does in almost 200,000 kilometres.

The proposed regulations would impose performance standards for both new and existing engines. The performance standards for new and existing engines are expected to reduce NOx emissions by about 1.8 megatonnes between 2013 and 2035, this is almost twice the amount of NOx that Canada’s entire mobile fleet—cars, trucks, planes, trains, tractors and other industrial equipment—emitted in 2011.

Non-utility boilers and heaters
Boilers covered by the proposed regulations burn gaseous fossil fuels, such as natural gas, to create hot water or steam for use in industrial processes and heating. Heaters directly heat the material being processed. In both boilers and heaters, the design of the burner is the most important determinant of NOx emissions intensity.

The proposed regulations would impose performance standards for both new and existing boilers and heaters. NOx emissions from regulated boilers and heaters are expected to be reduced by about 227,000 tonnes between 2013 to 2035. Using 2012 as the reference year, this is equivalent to eliminating an entire year’s worth of the NOx emissions from electric power generation, and commercial and residential fuel combustion.

Cement Manufacturing Sector
During cement manufacturing, the single greatest source of air pollutants of concern originates from the kiln. A kiln heats and processes limestone and other materials to produce an intermediate product called clinker. Clinker is then ground and combined with other materials to produce cement. The proposed regulations apply to all cement manufacturing facilities that produce clinker for the purpose of producing grey cement.

The proposed regulations would impose kiln-specific performance standards for NOx and SO2 per tonne of clinker produced. The proposed measures would impose performance standards starting in 2017. The cement sector produced a total of 16,000 tonnes of SO2 and 23,000 tonnes of NOx in 2011. The cement-sector standards are expected to reduce total SO2 and NOx emissions by 96,000 tonnes and 63,000 tonnes respectively between 2017 to 2035. For SO2, this is roughly the amount of sulphur dioxide in solid form that would fill 600 railcars, and 380 railcars for NOx.

Air Quality Management System
On October 11, 2012, the federal government, provincial and territorial governments agreed to begin implementing a new air quality management system (AQMS). The AQMS is a comprehensive approach for improving air quality in Canada and is the product of unprecedented collaboration by the federal, provincial and territorial governments and stakeholders. It includes:

– New Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) to set the bar for outdoor air quality management across the country (published in May 2013)

– Industrial emission requirements that set a base level of performance for major industries in Canada (first phase published in June 2014)

– A framework for air zone air management within provinces and territories that enables action tailored to specific sources of air emissions in a given area

– Regional airsheds that facilitate coordinated action where air pollution crosses a border
Improved intergovernmental collaboration to reduce emissions from the transportation sector

Following the announcement, the Globe Foundation pointed out that:

The new Multi-Sector Air Pollutants Regulations will not focus on the energy sector apart from capping emissions from Stationary Spark-Ignition Engines typically used for gas compression in the upstream oil and gas sector to move gas through pipelines, or as back-up power generators for emergencies or in remote locations.

The Multi-Sector Air Pollutants Regulations will be enabled pursuant to the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999.

This is positive news for Canadians and our respiratory health, though much more needs to be done vis-a-vis the regulation of energy sector emissions generally.

By James Early